How To Be(come) An Ottoman At The End Of the Eighteenth Century
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18th century Ottoman history witnessed the alteration of administrative elite, manifest in the substitution of men of sword (ehl-i seyf) with men of pen (ehl-i kalem). This transformation is an outcome of the changing nature of the relations between the Porte and the European states. As the Russian and Austrian Empires repeatedly defeated the Ottoman army, the Sublime Porte sought the solution in engaging the European diplomatic system, demanding bureaucrats to have knowledge on Europe and international relations.
SourceOsmanlı Araştırmaları Dergisi
- Sayı 44